Ultimate Guide to Diabetes
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease that occurs when your pancreas is not able to make insulin. It may also occur when the body is unable to use insulin it produces to control and regulate blood sugar. Chronic diabetes may be categorized into type 1 and type 2 diabetes. There are however, potentially reversible forms of diabetes such as prediabetes and gestational diabetes.
Prediabetes is when blood sugar levels tend to be higher than normal although not high enough to be categorized as diabetes mellitus. Gestational diabetes occurs in time of pregnancy and tends to resolve when you have delivered the baby. Treatment of diabetes is based on the type, and how well you respond to medications. It is also determined by the underlying cause.
How chronic diabetes occurs
Insulin is a hormone synthesized by pancreas. It acts as the key to letting glucose derived from food people eat move from the blood stream to enter the cells so that it can be used to produce energy. Carbohydrate foods are the ones broken down into glucose that enters the blood. Insulin will therefore help regulate glucose or blood sugar in cells, ergo, when your body does not produce enough of this hormone, or it does not use the released insulin, it is likely to encounter high glucose levels in body. This condition is known as hyperglycemia.
When you have hyperglycemia for extended period of time, it will cause damage or impair the function of organs, tissues, and the body systems. You have chronic diabetes when the body is unable to produce enough insulin or it does not use the produced insulin effectively.
Types of diabetes
Mainly, there are two types of diabetes, which are type 1 and type 2 diabetes. There are also other types, such as gestational diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is caused by autoimmune reactions, which affect the body’s defense mechanism thereby triggering an attack to cells responsible for the production of insulin.
Type 2 diabetes is the most common of all cases of diabetes. It is as a result of insulin resistance or insulin deficiency. One or both of these two situations are experienced at the time the diabetes is diagnosed.
What are the symptoms of diabetes
Symptoms of diabetes will vary based on the blood sugar level elevations. A few people especially those experiencing type 2 or prediabetes may not have any symptoms at the on-set. However, in type 1 diabetes, the symptoms may come quickly and tend to be more severe.
Symptoms of type 1 and type 2 diabetes include increased thirst, extreme hunger, frequent urination, irritability, fatigue, and slow healing of sores. Patients may also have other symptoms like blurred vision, ketones or byproduct of breakdown of fat and muscles, and unexplained weight loss.
Causes of diabetes
It is not exactly known what causes type 1 diabetes, which typically manifests in childhood or adolescences. However, what is known is that it occurs when the immune system attacks the cells that produce insulin in the pancreas. Genetic factors may be associated with this disease.
Type 2 diabetes and prediabetes occur when the cells become resistant to insulin action. This means the pancreas cannot produce sufficient insulin in order to be able to overcome this resistance. What happens is that instead of glucose moving to cells to produce energy, it tends to remain in blood. Why this happens is not exactly known either, but it is thought that environmental and genetic factor play a role. People who are overweight may develop type 2 diabetes.
Treatment of diabetes
The treatment procedure adopted depends on the kind of diabetes that you have. Eating healthy food and taking exercise are essential in managing diabetes. You may want to take food high in nutrients and fiber but low in calories or fat. Cutting down on animal produce, sweets, and refined carbohydrates may also help.
Physical activities like aerobic exercises helps lower the sugar level in body by allowing glucose to move into cells to be used for energy production. Exercising the body may increase sensitivity to insulin meaning that the body needs less insulin so as to be able to move sugar to the cells.
Insulin therapy may be used in order to help step up the amount of insulin in body. Insulin therapy is helpful in people with type 1 diabetes but it can still be applied in patients with type 2 and gestational diabetes.
There are oral medications used to treat diabetes including Metformin. The medications work to stimulate pancreas to release more insulin or inhibit the liver from releasing more glucose meaning that an individual will need less insulin to transport glucose to cells. You need to talk to your doctor to find out the best possible treatment therapy for diabetes.